# Using R as a Calculator

One of the most basic ways to use R is as a calculator. We can enter many math functions directly into the R Console. We will start to look at the various ways in which we can use R.

## Arithmetic Operators

R can handle most simple types of math operators.

Operator Description
+ Addition
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
^ or ** Exponentiation

For example:

# Addition
5+4
##  9
# Subtraction
124 - 26.82 
##  97.18
# Multiplication
5*4
##  20
# Division
35/8
##  4.375

## More Math functions.

We can also use many other math functions. All of these are included in base R without any extra packages.

# Exponentials
3^(1/2)
##  1.732051
# Exponential Function
exp(1.5)
##  4.481689
# Log base e
log(4.481689)
##  1.5
# Log base 10
log10(1000)
##  3

# On Your Own: Swirl Practice

In order to learn R you must do R. Follow the steps below in your RStudio console:

1. Run this command to pick the course:
swirl()

You will be promted to choose a course. Type whatever number is in front of 01 Getting Started. This will then take you to a menu of lessons. For now we will just use lesson 2. Type 2 to choose R as Calculator then follow all the instructions until you are finished.

Once you are finished with the lesson come back to this course and continue.

## Logical Operators

Another important feature of R is the ability to use logic. This is not unique to R as all programming languages can do this, but it will be extremely useful when working with data.

Operator Description
< Less Than
> Greater Than
<= Less Than or Equal To
>= Greater Than or Equal To
== Exactly Equal To
!= Not Equal To
!a Not a
a&b a AND b

We can then see an example of this:

a <- c(1:12)

If we wanted to know where $$a>9$$ or where $$a<4$$ we would expect to see the values: 1 2 3 10 11 12.

### Having R do this

a
##    1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12
a>9
##   FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE
##   TRUE

We can see that what R gives is are Boolean values as to whether or not each element of a is greater than 9. Similarly:

a<4
##    TRUE  TRUE  TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
##  FALSE

One simple thing we might try is to just combine these 2 values into a conditional

a>9 | a<4
##    TRUE  TRUE  TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE
##   TRUE

This again just gives us Booleans and not necessarily the values that we were hoping to see. We use this to index a in the following manner

a[a>9 | a<4]
##   1  2  3 10 11 12

We will look at indexing with much further detail as we move through this course.

# On Your Own: Swirl Practice

In order to learn R you must do R. Follow the steps below in your RStudio console:

1. Run this command to pick the course:
swirl()

You will be promted to choose a course. Type whatever number is in front of 01 Getting Started. This will then take you to a menu of lessons. For now we will just use lesson 3. Type 3 to choose Logic then follow all the instructions until you are finished.

Once you are finished with the lesson come back to this course and continue.

## Further Operators

There are other operators that we will use that are not necesssarily mathematical in nature. Each one of them is crucial for the use of R.

Description R Symbol Example
Comment # # This is a comment
Assignment <- x <- 5
Assignment -> 5 -> x
Assigment = x = 5
Concatenation operator c c(1,2,4)
Modular %% 25 %% 6
Sequence from a to b by h seq seq(a,b,h)
Sequence Operator : 0:3

# Quick Check Practice

 # This will get executed each time the exercise gets initialized b = 6 
 # Create a variable a, equal to 5 # Do this by typing: a <- 5 # Square a 
 # Create a variable a, equal to 5 a <- 5 # Square a a^2 
 test_object("a") test_output_contains("25", incorrect_msg = "Make sure to print a") success_msg("Great!") 

Use the assignment operator (<-) to create the variable a.

## Math Functions in R

We also have access to a wide variety of mathematical functions that are already built into R.

Description R Symbol
Square Root sqrt
floor(x) floor
\ceil(x) ceiling
Logarithm log
Exponential function, e^x exp
Factorial, ! factorial

# Quick Check Practice

 b <- NA 

 # Create a variable b, equal to 4 # What is the log of b? # what is the exponential of the log of b? 

 # Create a variable b, equal to 4 b <- 4 # What is the log of b? log(b) # what is the exponential of the log of b? exp(log(b)) 

 test_object("b") test_function("log", args = "x") test_function("exp", args="x") test_output_contains("1.386", incorrect_msg = "Did you take the logarithm of b?") test_output_contains("4", incorrect_msg = "Did you take the exponential of the logarithm of b?") test_error() success_msg("Great job!") 

Use the assignment operator (<-) to create the variable a.