Types of outcomes

The kinds of outcomes you might use to evaluate your interventions fall into a few different categories:

Clinical outcomes
These outcomes are based on the clinician’s assessment or diagnosis, are often objective and may be easy to measure, such as mortality or clinical cure.

Surrogate Outcomes
Also called intermediate outcomes, these outcomes are generally biochemical or physiological markers that might indicate whether a patient is improving in an area considered to be linked with clinical outcomes. Examples include biomarkers or lab measurements. However, be aware that surrogate outcomes may not be perfect, or even good, predictors of the clinical outcomes.

Patient Centered/Patient Reported Outcomes
These outcomes are health outcomes directly reported by patients and are usually related to their ability to function throughout the day. They often measure quality of life and include aspects such as pain level, energy, or the ability to sleep through the night without getting up to go to the bathroom.